Sunday, September 6, 2009

21 - IPC sections related to forensic medicine

Sec 118 IPC—Concealing design to commit offence punishable with death or improsonment for life.

Sec 176, IPC—Omission to give notice or information to public servant by person legally bound to give it.

Sec 177 IPC—Furnishing false information.

Sec 182 IPC—False information with intent to cause public servant to use lawful power to the injury of another person. .

Sec 191 IPC—Giving false evidence

Sec 192 IPC—Fabricating false evidence.

Sec 193 IPC—Punishment for false evidence.

Sec 194 IPC—Giving or fabricating false evidence with intent to procure conviction of capital offence.

Sec 195 IPC — Giving or fabricating false evidence with intent to procure conviction of offence punishable with imprisonment for life or imprisonment.

Sec 197 IPC—Issuing or signing false certificates.

Sec 201 IPC—Causing disappearance of evidence of offence, or giving false information to screen offenders .
Sec 203 IPC—Giving false information respecting an offence committed.

Sec 204 IPC—Destruction of document to prevent its production as evidence.

Sec 284 IPC —Negligent conduct with respect to poisonous substances.

Sec 304 IPC—Causing death by negligence.

Sec 309 IPC—Attempt to commit suicide

Sec 313 IPC—Causing miscarriage without woman's consent

Sec 318 IPC—Concealment of birth by secret disposal of dead body.

Sec 319 IPC—Hurt.

Sec 320 IPC—Grievous hurt.

Sec 351 IPC—Assault.

Sec 362 IPC—Abduction.

Sec 375 IPC —Rape.

Sec 376 IPC—Punishment for rape.

Sec 377 IPC—Unnatural offences.

Sec 497 IPC—Adultery.

Sec 39 Cr. P.C—Every person, aware of the commission of or of the intention of any other person to commit any offence is punishable under I.P.C. shall forthwith give information to the nearest magistrate of police officer of such commission or intention.

Sec 84 IPC—Nothing is an offence which is done by a person who at the time of doing it, by reason of unsoundness of mind, is incapable of knowing the nature of the act or what he is doing is either wrong or contrary to law.

Wednesday, April 22, 2009

20 - Arsenic Poisoning

Smelting and microelectronics industries; wood preservatives, pesticides, herbicides, fungicides; contaminant of deep-water wells; folk remedies; and coal; incineration of these products

Organic arsenic (arsenobentaine, arsenocholine) is ingested in seafood and fish, but is nontoxic; inorganic arsenic is readily absorbed (lung and GI); sequesters in liver, spleen, kidneys, lungs, and GI tract; residues persist in skin, hair, and nails; biomethylation results in detoxification, but this process saturates.

Acute arsenic poisoning results in necrosis of intestinal mucosa with hemorrhagic gastroenteritis, fluid loss, hypotension, delayed cardiomyopathy, acute tubular necrosis, and hemolysis.
Chronic arsenic exposure causes diabetes, vasospasm, peripheral vascular insufficiency and gangrene, peripheral neuropathy, and cancer of skin, lung, liver (angiosarcoma), bladder, kidney.
Lethal dose: 120–200 mg (adults); 2 mg/kg (children).

Nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain, delirium, coma, seizures; garlicky odor on breath; hyperkeratosis, hyperpigmentation, exfoliative dermatitis, and Mees' lines (transverse white striae of the fingernails); sensory and motor polyneuritis, distal weakness. Radiopaque sign on abdominal x-ray; ECG–QRS broadening, QT prolongation, ST depression, T-wave flattening; 24-h urinary arsenic >67 micromoles/day; (no seafood x 24 h); if recent exposure, serum arsenic >0.9 micromoles/L ( 7 micrograms/dL) . High arsenic in hair or nails .

If acute ingestion, ipecac to induce vomiting, gastric lavage, activated charcoal with a cathartic. Supportive care in ICU.
Dimercaprol 3–5 mg/kg IM q4h x 2 days; q6h x 1 day, then q12h x 10 days; alternative: oral succimer.

Tuesday, March 31, 2009

19 - organophosphorous poisoning mcqs

1q: a 5 year old child presents with confusion, increased salivation, lacrimation, fasciculations, miosis, tachycardia and hypertension. Which of the following poisons can cause these manifestations ?

a. opium
b. organophosphorous insecticide
c. dhatura
d. organochlorine pesticide

explanation : only opium and organophosphorous insecticides out of the above 4 options cause miosis . it is to be noted that dhatura ( atropine ) and organochlorine cause mydriasis .

organsophosphate poisoning : organophosphate poisons irreversibly inhibit acetylcholinesterase and cause accumulation of acetylcholine at muscarinic and nicotinic receptors .

Muscarinic effects of organosphosphorous poisons are :

1. miosis and blurred vision
2. increased sweating, salivation, lacrimation
3. increased bronchial secretions, bronchoconstriction
4. abdominal cramps, diarrhea, nausea, vomiting
5. urinary frequency and incontinence

Nicotinic effects of organophosphorous poisons are :

1. on striated muscles – twitching, fasciculations, cramps and muscle paralysis
2. on sympathetic ganglia – hypertension and tachycardia

CNS effects of organophosphorous poisons are :

1. anxiety , restlessness and confusion
2. seizures and coma

- this child presents with tachycardia and hypertension which are nicotinic manifestations. Sometimes the presentation can vary due to the muscarinic effect on cardiovascular system which causes bradycardia and hypotension , but this occurs due to severe organosphosphorous poisoning .

This question was asked in the november 2002 AIIMS question paper . 

Sunday, February 8, 2009

18 - NIMS FEBRUARY 2009 forensic mcqs

1q: honey comb appearance of the liver is observed in ?

a. putrefaction
b. mummification
c. adipocere
d. autolysis

answer: a . putrefaction .

putrefaction begins internally with the stomach and intestine . the liver develops a honey comb pattern with gas formation and similar changes may be seen in the brain ,most readily if it is fixed in formalin prior to wetting .

check out this link from google books .

click here for other questions with answers from the NIMS february 2009 paper .

Visitors currently online