Monday, March 22, 2010

29 - Tache noire

*Tache noir is one of the important postmortem changes seen in the eye after death.

*If the eyes remain open after death, the areas of the sclera exposed to the air dry out, which results in a first yellowish, then brownish-blackish band like discoloration zone called TACHE NOIRE.

*It is seen mostly after 7 to 8 hours after death. (AP PG 2010 Question).

Monday, March 1, 2010

28 - Indices used for SEX identification by Sacrum

1. Sacral index: (Width x 100) / Straight Length

2. Curvature index: (Straight Length x 100) / Mid -ventral curved length

3. Index of body of Ist Sacral vertebra: (AP daimeter of body of S 1 x 100) / Transeverse dia of body of S 1

4. Corporo-basal index: (Transverse diameter of body of S1 x 100) / Width of sacrum

5. Alar index: (Length of ala x 100) / Transverse diameter of body of S1

6. Auricular index: (Length of auricular surface x 100) / Width of sacrum


1. Maximum length of sacrum (Wilder's mid- ventral Straight length) -measured along the mid-line of sacrum with the sliding caliper from middle of antero-superior margin of promontory to middle of antero-inferior margin of the last sacral vertebra.

2. Maximum breadth of sacrum -measured with the sliding caliper by taking two points at the upper part of auricular surface anteriorly (or lateral most part of alae of sacrum), thus maximum breadth is measured on anterior aspect of sacrum.

3. Curved length of sacrum (Mid-ventral curved length)- measured along the mid line of the anterior surface of the sacrum (from middle of antero-superior margin of promontory to middle of antero-inferior margin of the last sacral vertebra) by the flexible steel tape.

4. Antero-posterior diameter of the body of Ist sacral vertebra - It is the maximum possible diameter of Ist sacral vertebra measured with the sliding caliper by taking one point on antero-superior border and another point on the postero-superior border of Ist sacral vertebral body.

5. Transverse diameter of the body of Ist sacral vertebra- It is the maximum transverse diameter of Ist sacral vertebra measured with the sliding caliper by taking one point on each side of the lateral most point on the superior surface of body of Ist sacral vertebra.

6. Length of alae -It is measured on both sides with the sliding caliper by taking one point on lateral most point of superior surface of body of Ist sacral vertebra and another point on lateral most part of alae. The mean of the length of the two sides is taken as length of alae.

7. Maximum length of auricular surface-It is the straight auricular length measured on lateral aspect of sacrum by means of a sliding caliper by taking one point on the upper most part of auricular surface and another point on the lower most part of auricular surface of sacrum.

Thursday, February 25, 2010

27 - Differences between Antemortem and postmortem wounds

-Blood clotted and the clot is
   ~firmly adherent to
     the lining of endothelium
   ~firm, rubbery and
-Copious amount
-Deep staining of edges
  which can't be
   washed away
-Blood usually not clotted
 and if clots it is
   ~Non laminated
   ~Weakly adherent to the
      lining of endothelium
   ~Soft,friable chicken
      fat(yellow) or current
      jelly(red) appearance
-Slight amount
-Staining is superficial
 and can be washed away
Gaping,everted,swollenApposed,not swollen
Vital reactionSigns of inflammation,
and healing (granulation tissue) present
Not present
Negative and positive vital
Vital reaction absent
IncreasedNo increase
Microscopy-Clot has platelets
-Leucocyte and
 RBC infiltration in
between muscle fibers
-Clot lacks platelets
-No infiltration

26 - Clinical features of Organophosphorous poisoning

*Since organophosphorous compounds are powerful inhibitors of cholinesterase, their poisoning manifests as cholinergic symptoms.

*The clinical features of Organophosphorous poisoning are :

1. Bronchoconstriction and increased bronchial secretion - simulates bronchial asthma. Other symptoms are dyspnea, cough, pulmonary edema and cyanosis.
2. Increased sweating
3. Increased salivation
4. Increased lacrimation - tears may be red
5. Slightly bradycardia
6. Miosis, Blurring/Dimness of vision
7. Increased frequency of micturition and involuntary micturition.
8. Abdominal cramps, diarrhea, epigastric/substernal tightness

1. On striated muscles - easy fatigue, fasciculations, cramps, dyspnea (weakness of respiratory muscles and cyanosis)
2. On sympathetic ganglia - Pallor, Occasional elevation of B.P

1. Restlessness, irritability, apprehension
2. Fine fibrillary tremors of hands, eye lids, tongue
3. Mental confusion, convulsions
4. Coma with absence of reflexes and depression of respiratory and circulatory centres. Death usually occurs due to paralysis of respiratory muscles.

Parikh' Textbook of Medical Jurisprudence Forensic Medicine and Toxicology

25 - Signs and Symptoms of chronic LEAD poisoning

1. Facial pallor : This is the earliest symptom.
2. Colic and Constipation : This is the first symptom that armbouses suspicion of plumbism
3. Anemia : This is associated with punctate basophilia
4. Lead line (BURTONIAN LINE) : A bluish-black line due to epithelial deposition of lead sulphide granules on the gums at the junction with the teeth. (not on teeth). Similar line may also be seen with Mercury, Copper, Bismuth, Iron and Silver poisoning.
5. Paralysis : Usually a late manifestation. Commonly causes wrist drop (extensor muscles of wrist) but may cause foot drop (peroneal muscles).
6. Lead encephalopathy : Frequently seen in children (not so common in adults).
7. Reproductive system : Menstrual disorders, abortion/still births, degenerate offsprings and sterility.

Wednesday, February 24, 2010

24 - Differences between Male and Female pelvis

Massive and heart shapedLess massive, rounded
PELVIC INLETDeep and narrowShallow and wide
ILIUMLess expanded, hence walls
are not splayed
More expanded, hence
walls are splayed
ASISNot widely separatedWidely separated
PUBIC ARCHNarrow, V shaped, angle
less than 70,less distance
between ischia
Wide, U shaped,
angle greater than 90,
more distance ischia
Ovoid with base upwardTriangular with apex
Narrow, deep, angle
less than 90
Wide,shallow, angle
greater than 90
Narrow,shallow, without
marked edges
Broad,deep, in parous
SACRUMLong,narrow,has greater
than 5 segments,well
marked promontory
Wide,short,has 5
less marked
CURVE OF SACRUMEqual over entire length,
S-index less than 112
Straight in first 3
segments, the curve
being confined to a
point below the centre
of 3rd sacral vertebra
2.5-3 Vertebral bodies2-2.5 vertebral bodies
ACETABULUMWider and deeperNarrow and shallow

Monday, February 22, 2010

23 - Causes of Post mortem caloricity

*Post mortem Caloricity is a condition where the temperature of the body remains raised for the first two or so hours after death. In certain conditions, instead of promoting the process of cooling of the body, act in a way, so that, the body temperature is either high at the time of death or is increased for sometime after death, so that, at a particular time after death the body may appear disproportionately warmer than what it should have been. This is termed as Post Mortem Caloricity and the conditions are
1.      Post mortem Glycogenolysis
a.       This is a normal phenomenon and the rise is 3.6oF or 2oC
2.      Various Causes of Death such as
a.       Septicaemia,
                                                              i.      Infectious diseases,
                                                            ii.      Bacteremia
                                                          iii.      Tetanus, Rabies, yellow fever
b.      Asphyxial Conditions
c.       Severe convulsions
                                                              i.      Tetanus
                                                            ii.      Strychnine
d.      Hyperpyrexia at death
                                                              i.      Heat Stroke (sun stroke)
                                                            ii.      Pontine Haemorrhage
e.       High Atmospheric Temperature
f.        Peritonitis, Meningitis, Nephritis
g.       Alcohol poisoning

Sunday, February 21, 2010

22 - Cognizable and Non-Cognizable offences

A cognizable offence in the criminal justice system of India is one in which the police is empowered to register a FIR, investigate and arrest an accused involved in cognizable crime without a court warrant. As defined in Cr.PC, a non-cognizable offence is one in which police can neither register a First Information Report (FIR) nor can investigate or effect arrest without the express permission or directions from the court.

 A cognizable offence is a case where the Police can arrest without a warrant. All cognizable cases involve criminal offences. Murder, Robbery, Theft, Rioting, Counterfeiting etc. are some examples of cognizable offences. Non-cognizable offences are those criminal infractions, which are relatively less serious. Examples of non-cognizable offences include Public Nuisance, Causing Simple Hurt, Assault, Mischief etc. The Police cannot register criminal cases or cause arrests with regard to non-cognizable offences. In all such cases, the Police have to take permission from a magistrate for registration of a criminal case.

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